355 Prophecies

Fulfilled in Jesus Christ?

If you’ve spent any time exploring internet apologetics then there’s a good chance you’ve come across some version of a list which claims to show as many as 365 Old Testament prophecies that were fulfilled by Jesus (e.g., the thoroughly argued list of Rob Robinson). You may have also encountered responses to the list, such as Sophiee’s response from a Jewish perspective.

Somebody close to me personally gave me a printout of a version of this list, taken from accordingtothescriptures.org. It lists 355 Old Testament prophecies that were fulfilled by Jesus, giving the OT verse, a very brief statement of the prophecy and fulfillment, and the NT verse(s) where fulfillment is demonstrated (as an aside – the accordingtothescriptures.org site has been hosting a form of this list since at least 2001 and is cited by many reproductions, but I don’t know whether it is the ultimate source). Regardless, this page is my forum for showing that I have not ignored this heartfelt attempt to direct me to truth.

used-car-salesmanThis is both an interesting and frustrating exercise. It is interesting in that it continues to refresh and expand my education on biblical history, textual criticism, Christian origins and, perhaps more than anything else, my understanding of the extent to which the New Testament authors drew upon the Tanakh in their writings. It was clearly important to them to establish continuity with their religious tradition. As for the frustration, that comes from the routine disappointment in the contortions required by the prophecy claims. Taken as a whole, it feels a bit as if you’re dealing with a shady used car salesman who is willing to say whatever it takes to sell their product – though that is probably an unfair characterization of the list’s authors and I grant that that they may truly believe that every entry in the list is a genuine prophecy. Similarly, I also understand that those who find validation in lists such as this have usually never truly scrutinized them and are simply trusting that the authors are honestly upholding the faith tradition. That’s understandable. We all tend to place our confidence in traditions and communities that we value and trust. Accordingly, I don’t expect any believer or skeptic to blindly accept my responses. This page primarily serves to show that when it comes to the prophetic, messianic credentials of Yeshua the Nazarene, I have personally sought truth and done the work to engage the evidence.

Foreword on Typology

These claims of prophecy fulfillment frequently rest on the acceptance of typology – not that there is some sort of literal prophecy, but rather that the Old Testament event, passage or person serves as a “type” or “prefigure” of Jesus. This concept warrants a bit of up-front discussion.

It is my understanding that many ancient cultures embraced a sort of naive retrocausality, wherein later events and objects are not just consequences of earlier events and objects, but rather played a teleological role in explaining why the earlier events and objects existed in the first place – that the earlier world in some sense anticipated the later goal and was oriented toward that end. This stems from our pervasive tendency to assign purpose, what Deborah Kelemen calls “promiscuous teleology” and it almost certainly influences your and my thinking as well. Regardless, most claims of typological fulfillment are only viable if we accept the validity of that worldview and the rather arbitrary selection of a particular object or event as the goal to which everything else points. The philosophical rabbit-trail necessary to assess this is not one which I intend to pursue here, but it is certainly at odds with a modern view of cause and effect operating according to the entropic arrow of time (also see my previous post on this topic).

Without presuming that teleological framework, we often see that the typological connections are most simply and easily explained either as fabrication or as lacking the specificity needed to assign significance to the link (i.e., when the type is vague enough, or when there are a lot of sources to draw from, links are likely to be found). Note that I am casting a wide net with the charge of fabrication, such that this includes both:

  • Incidental fabrication, where properties are assigned to Jesus merely as a consequence of the cultural and theological context in which the Christology developed, and
  • Intentional fabrication, where the author’s intentions are are visible enough for us to infer that they have deliberately assigned characteristics or actions to Jesus for the purpose of aligning him with the earlier type. Note that this does not infer deception – the author may in fact honestly believe that they are presenting truth in the process of establishing the connection.

The result of all this is that typological claims tend to lack a robust supporting rationale for accepting the prophetic interpretation. However, despite these misgivings, typology is key to many of the claims of fulfillment and has been rampantly deployed throughout church history and the New Testament. It goes hand-in-hand with midrash and so appears to have been broadly accepted in second-temple Judaism. I will, therefore, grant the possibility of typological fulfillment for the sake of argument and discuss the relevant factors on a case by case basis.

Foreword on textual origins

I have encountered many cases where the divergent textual sources are proving highly relevant to the prophecy interpretation. For example, the New Testament texts usually exhibit dependence on the Septuagint when making reference to the Old Testament and the Septuagint’s differences from the Masoretic text can completely change the nature of the alleged relationship. This will come up enough that it warrants some initial discussion.

First, for those who aren’t aware, here’s a little background. The Septuagint (often abbreviated by the roman numerals LXX) is the name given to the Greek translation of the Old Testament. The name refers to the tradition in which 72 elders (rounded down to 70, hence LXX) were commissioned around 300 BCE to translate the law (Torah, or Pentateuch, meaning the first five books of the OT) to Greek. Over the subsequent centuries translations of additional books were added to the collection, including several that were not included the Jewish canon (Tanakh). These extra books make up much of what is known as the apocrypha in Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles. Conversely, the Jewish canon comes down to us through the Masoretic Text (MT) in a modernized version of the Hebrew language that wouldn’t have been used when the books were originally authored. So between these two options (not to ignore the Samaritan Pentateuch, SP) we don’t actually have a tradition that is truly representative of the original texts – though the discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls (DSS) has offered us a window of insight into the state of the texts between about 200 BCE and 100 CE.

It can be difficult to research the comparative merits of the Masoretic and Septuagint sources online. Many traditions have a strong vested interest in favoring one or the other, but I have found that the work of Emanuel Tov probably offers the best singular resource for gaining insight into the intersection of these various textual sources. Based on the information largely gleaned from his papers, it’s clear that there aren’t any easy answers for deciphering the most probable form of the original text, but a general rule of thumb is that there are good reasons to prefer the MT unless the LXX agrees with other sources (e.g., DSS or SP), or unless the LXX clarifies an otherwise disjointed, difficult or nonsensical reading in the MT. This is the approach I favor here.

The Prophecies

I intend for this listing to be dynamically updated in response to discussion. There are certainly ideas and associations that I have overlooked or misinterpreted. Please use the comments to propose any suggestions or corrections. Note that every claim has an anchor that can be linked to by putting “#N” at the end of the page URL (where N is the number of the entry). Most platforms will also support hovering or clicking on the verses to show a pop-up containing the text for that verse from the New English Translation (thanks to NETBibleTagger).

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
1 Gen. 3:15 Seed of a woman (virgin birth) Gal. 4:4-5; Mt. 1:18
Response:
First, I don’t see how anyone can possible infer a virgin birth from that verse. Regarding the prospect that this is even a messianic prophecy, I offer a quote from the notes for the NET translation:

The Hebrew word translated “offspring” [seed] is a collective singular. The text anticipates the ongoing struggle between human beings (the woman’s offspring) and deadly poisonous snakes (the serpent’s offspring). An ancient Jewish interpretation of the passage states: “He made the serpent, cause of the deceit, press the earth with belly and flank, having bitterly driven him out. He aroused a dire enmity between them. The one guards his head to save it, the other his heel, for death is at hand in the proximity of men and malignant poisonous snakes.”

Even this is generous. To say that “The text anticipates the ongoing struggle…” infers that there is some degree of validity to the cause and effect relationship between the story and the enmity. More clearly, this is a classic example of the “just so stories” which permeate mythical literature to explain certain features of the world.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
2 Gen. 3:15 He will bruise Satan’s head Heb. 2:14; 1 John 3:8
Response:
See #1 for arguments against a messianic interpretation. Even if we grant that, the claimed fulfillment is a completely inscrutable theological assertion.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
3 Gen. 3:15 Christ’s heel would be bruised with nails on the cross Matthew 27:35; Luke 24:39-40
Response:
See #1 for arguments against a messianic interpretation. Even if Jesus did have nails driven through his heels (which is certainly possible), we aren’t told this in the verses cited here, or in any of the passion narratives, so the fulfillment is still uncorroborated.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
4 Gen. 5:24 The bodily ascension to heaven illustrated Mark 16:19; Rev 12:5
Response:
Typology offers the only possible prophetic interpretation here. Though both stories present an exit from earthly existence separate from bodily death, all other similarities appear to derive solely from a shared yet flawed understanding of a biblical cosmology which places the heavenly realm physically above the earth. As such, I doubt that the author of the ascension stories about Jesus was borrowing from the story of Enoch, so this falls under the category of ‘incidental fabrication’. The typological connection is extremely weak at best (not to mention that the verse in Mark is part of the “longer ending” that very likely wasn’t part of the gospel until about the middle of the second century).
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
5 Gen. 9:26-27 The God of Shem will be the Son of Shem Luke 3:23-36
Response:
The Genesis passage says nothing about the lineage of the messiah but is rather all about a curse on Ham\Canaan that appears to be a rationalization of the Jews’ self-elevation over the other inhabitants of the Levant (i.e., the Canaanites). Incidentally, much harm has come from this passage over the ages and it receives an excellent treatment at Paul Davidson’s “Is That in the Bible” blog.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
6 Gen. 12:3 Seed of Abraham will bless all nations Galatians 3:8; Acts 3:25-26
Response:
This promise to Abraham in Genesis is one of many instances where the pre-Exilic story aims to reinforce the Jews’ hope that they are God’s chosen people and will one day rise to prominence. There is also contention on the interpretation for this verse, whether the verb ‘to bless’ is passive or reflexive. The NET and RSV take it as reflexive and so it reads “all the families of the earth will bless one another by your name” (NET). I am not in a position to say whether or not this is more likely to be correct. Regardless, it is also important to note that there is no singular “seed” identified in the passage – Abraham himself is referenced as the source of the blessing.

In Galations, Paul is using the verse in Genesis as part of his justification for the dissemination of the gospel message to the Gentiles. In Acts, this passage is quoted in the speech by Peter at the temple. In both cases it would seem that they are indirectly inferring that Jesus is the vehicle by which the blessing is delivered to the Gentiles (as he is the object of faith in Galatians, and as the servant in the subsequent verse in Acts). The insertion of Jesus, or the messiah in general, is a strained reading. In the original context, the vehicle for the delivery of the blessing is more properly understood to be the Jewish nation as a whole – note that the preceding verse in Genesis says that “I will make you into a great nation”. Only if we take the words of the New Testament authors as yielding the authoritative interpretation of the Old Testament texts, and likewise accept their messianic atonement theology, might we find prophecy fulfillment. But the contrived and inventive exegesis of 1st century Christians does not make it so.

It is clear that this contention will be a recurring theme in the claims of prophecy fulfillment. This sort of midrashic liberty is prolific in early Christian literature and I am not content to grant prophecy fulfillment by accepting the author’s interpretation at face value. If claims of prophecy fulfillment are to persuade us that the Bible contains some level of divine revelation then we cannot start by giving the biblical authors full exegetical reign and thereby presuming biblical authority.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
7 Gen. 12:7 The Promise made to Abraham’s Seed Gal. 3:16
Response:
There is nothing messianic here. The prophecy only identifies the land that Israel will inhabit (and had been inhabited long before this pericope was written). Furthermore, if the “seed” is taken to be Jesus then it makes no sense that the promise is for the acquisition of a specific tract of land.

Paul can be said to be linking with Genesis 12:7 in Galatians 3 when he emphasizes the use of a singular pronoun instead of a plural pronoun as an indication that the promises regarding Abraham’s “seed” were speaking of a singular person; namely, Jesus. One could do a deep dive on this, but the short answer is that where Paul uses the Greek singular (sperma) and plural (spermata) to make this distinction, the original Hebrew (zera) only ever used the singular in the entire Tanakh and in a context such as this it is always intended as a collective singular (e.g., see the NET note on #1). This is simply creative wordplay by Paul.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
8 Gen. 14:18 A priest after the order of Melchizedek Heb. 6:20
Response:
At best, this is an example of typology via post hoc fabrication. The author of Hebrews is assigning inscrutable, theological attributes to Jesus to align him with Melchizedek in accordance with the messianic pattern in Psalm 110, which was a favorite of the early church. That particular passage is addressed in more detail in #150 – 153.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
9 Gen. 14:18 King of Peace and Righteousness Heb. 7:2
Response:
Same as #8.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
10 Gen. 14:18 The Last Supper foreshadowed Mt. 26:26-29
Response:
Again, this isn’t an actual prophecy but rather a claim of typology. In light of that, we can simply observe that bread and wine was common to formal Jewish meals and that the Last Supper accounts were likely influenced by several cultural traditions even beyond the Seder meal. An interesting read on the topic can be found here. So the simplest explanation starts with a common tradition that feeds into both the text in Genesis and the Last Supper – there is no need to suppose any other relationship between the events.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
11 Gen. 17:19 Seed of Isaac (Gen. 21:12) Romans 9:7
Response:
In Genesis we have a prophecy of the establishment of the kingdom of Israel through Isaac. There is nothing messianic here.

In Romans 9 it appears that Paul is trying to explain why Jews – the people of the covenant – are not the sole heirs of the messianic age. To do this, he argues that Abrahamic lineage is not sufficient because otherwise Ishmael would have been included. He then uses this to suggest that the true heirs are those who are the “children of the promise” and then goes on to include the Gentiles in this group. Here again we have Paul engaging in creative exegesis to fit the Tanakh into his agenda.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
12 Gen. 22:8 The Lamb of God promised John 1:29
Response:
There is no reason to read something prophetic into Genesis 22:8 beyond it’s stated context, which is the immediate future of the characters in the story. See paragraph 5 of the bible.org article “Another Look at the Lamb of God” for several reasons why the Genesis passage is an unlikely referent for John the Baptist’s proclamation.

As that article shows, lambs figure heavily in the Jewish tradition of sacrificial offerings. If a 1st century sect adopts the sacrificial theology of their Jewish tradition as a means to reconcile the death of their messianic candidate then it is not surprising if their writings include analogies to sacrificial lambs. See my post on “Reconciling the crucified messiah” for additional thoughts on this topic.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
13 Gen. 22:18 As Isaac’s seed, will bless all nations Gal. 3:16
Response:
Regarding Genesis, see #6.

Regarding Galatians, see #7.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
14 Gen. 26:2-5 The Seed of Isaac promised as the Redeemer Heb. 11:18
Response:
This is simply an update of the promise discussed in #6 and #7 for Abraham, now addressed to Isaac.

Beyond that, the author of Hebrews isn’t even suggesting that it is messianic prophecy. The reference from Hebrews to Genesis is only in the context of a commentary on the soteriological efficacy of faith. This has nothing to do with prophecy fulfillment.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
15 Gen. 28:12 The Bridge to heaven John 1:51
Response:
It’s hard to see how this is even typological. The author who composed John 1:51 probably drew upon the language in the LXX translation of Gen 28:12, as evidenced by the degree of matching in the Greek text, but this says nothing about prophecy (see below). Regardless, it’s unclear what the passage in John is actually saying, whether it’s forward looking to an eschatological event (in which case we can’t say it has been fulfilled yet) or is some sort of symbolic metaphor (which severely weakens the claim of prophecy fulfillment).

Finally, I know this is going to come up again, so let’s make this clear: when a New Testament author borrows a word or phrase from the LXX and uses it in a new context, that in itself does not constitute prophecy fulfillment in any way. All this tells us is that the author was familiar with the LXX and wanted to build upon the authority of the Tanakh to boost the respectability of their claim.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
16 Gen. 28:14 The Seed of Jacob Luke 3:34
Response:
This claim is applying Paul’s strategy (per #7) to insert Jesus into the Genesis passage as referring to an individual rather than a collective singular, even though the same word (zera) is used earlier in the verse in association with plurality (“like the dust of the earth”) and dispersion (“spread out to the west, east, north and south”).
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
17 Gen. 49:10 The time of His coming Luke 2:1-7; Gal. 4:4
Response:
This starts with a contentious interpretation of Shiloh as a reference to a messianic figure (see #19). On that assumption, then this would be prophesying that Judah would rule (retain the scepter) until the messiah comes – but this is a problem since the tribe of Judah did not rule until Jesus showed up. From what I’ve seen, the apologists make this work is by claiming that Judah is actually a reference to “all Jews” and that the Jews still held some level of political autonomy throughout their subjugation to foreign powers. Some go further and claim that the scepter actually did depart in AD 6 when the Roman authorities removed the Sanhedrin’s authority to render capital punishment, and that this is a sign that the messiah had come (though an oft cited Talmudic reference to support this interpretation appears to be fraudulent). In the end, these all appear to be strained interpretations that are only adopted to fit a desired outcome.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
18 Gen. 49:10 The Seed of Judah Luke 3:33
Response:
Aside from the questionable assignment of this verse to a messianic figure (see #19) and the tenuous claim regarding the reign of Judah (see #17), it’s also unlikely that either Matthew or Luke are historically accurate genealogies (as partly evidenced by their conflict) but were instead crafted to meet certain ideological criteria. One of those criteria was a demonstration that Jesus was of David’s lineage, a non-negotiable requirement for the messiah. Once this is established, the relationship to Judah comes as a consequence of the genealogies already established for David in the Old Testament (which, not so coincidentally, is also where Matthew and Luke actually agree).
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
19 Gen. 49:10 Called Shiloh or One Sent John 17:3
Response:
The meaning of Shiloh in this verse is unclear and differs throughout translations. Many individuals who are far more qualified than I have invested countless hours to that investigation and as far as I can tell there is no consensus. All I will note is simply that Shiloh was never assigned a messianic personage until perhaps the 1st century CE. I personally think that the NRSV and JPS translation makes the most sense – “until tribute is brought to him”. This accords with the obedience of the nations in the subsequent and final two words of the verse, so that the simplified translation of the whole verse is something like “Judah will not cease to rule before all the nations bring tribute in obedience to him”.

Regardless of what Shiloh actually means, the claim of fulfillment in John 17:3 is very weak. John uses apesteilas extensively, and it is not an uncommon word in general, and there is no reason to believe that it is intended here or anywhere else to be a parallel to Gen 49:10 or ‘Shiloh’.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
20 Gen. 49:10 Messiah to come before Judah lost identity John 11:47-52
Response:
Same as #17.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
21 Gen. 49:10 Unto Him shall the obedience of the people be John 10:16
Response:
If we grant that this verse is messianic (and that’s a big if, see #17#20) then there is some level of agreement here. “The nations” in Genesis corresponds with the “sheep that do not come from this sheepfold” in John. However, there’s nothing spectacular or improbable going on. Israel routinely fantasized about being the world power in their writings and John, like most Christian texts, supports the extension of salvation to the Gentiles. These are very different concepts at root which are only made similar by simplifying to the idea to say that all non-Jews will come under the leadership of the “king of the Jews” (where Jesus’ status as king is an inscrutable theological assertion).
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
22 Ex. 3:13-15 The Great “I AM” John 4:26; 8:58
Response:
The Johannine Christology clearly equates Jesus with Yahweh, so it is no surprise that words are put into his mouth which cause him to identify himself as Yahweh. As such, there is a simple explanation that does not entail prophecy fulfillment.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
23 Ex. 12:3-6 The Lamb presented to Israel 4 days before Passover Mark 11:7-11
Response:
Entries #23#27 are all clearly claims of typological fulfillment which are identifying the Passover Lamb as a prefiguring of Jesus. There are no explicit prophecies here but this is a substantial topic that warrants a more thorough review at some point.

The act in Exodus 12 is nothing like a “presentation to Israel” – it is merely the day when the individual families privately select a lamb and remove it from the herd. Some apologists argue that Jesus’ acceptance by the crowds at the Triumphal Entry is akin to selection of the lamb, but that isn’t an obvious parallel. The summary here misleadingly creates an association that isn’t otherwise clear.

Regarding the timing, the most straightforward parsing of the text in Mark would seem to place the event at five days prior to Passover – which accords with the explicit timing that is given in John 12. John tells us that Jesus arrived in Bethany six days before Passover and that the Triumphal Entry was the next day. To get to four days we have adopt one of the following interpretations:

  1. The “two days” in Mark 14:1 refer to waking days and all the events of 11:20 to 14:11 occur on 12th of Nissan. This, however, does not match with John.
  2. The sacrifice required in Exodus is to occur after sunset (despite ALL tradition otherwise), meaning it occurred at the start of the 14th of Nissan rather than at the end. Then the days in Mark and John are treated as traditional Jewish sunset-sunset days instead of waking days, so that the events in Mark 14:1-11 occurred on the 12th of Nissan.
  3. Identify the waking day which starts at sunrise on the 15th of Nissan as the Passover day from which all relative time periods are referenced. In this case, both Mark and John would use “day” to mean waking days, so that the events of Mark 14:1-11 occurred at the end of the 13th of Nissan.

Option 3 is the most compelling and may be correct – it eliminates what would otherwise be an eventless day on the 13th of Nissan. In that case, the timing proposed by the claim of fulfillment would be accurate but we still have what is an otherwise highly ambiguous parallel.

It’s also worth noting here that John and the synoptics don’t agree on the day of Jesus’ crucifixion, which may account for some of the timing issues noted above. John prefers that Jesus’ death align with the Passover sacrifice, but that timing is unlikely.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
24 Ex. 12:5 A Lamb without blemish Heb. 9:14; 1 Peter 1:19
Response:
First and foremost, we can’t assess the veracity of a fulfillment claim which rests on an inscrutable theological assertion.

How might we determine whether the New Testament authors are borrowing the Passover ideology and imposing it onto Jesus, or whether the Passover was actually a prefiguring of Jesus? Well, one option is to look at how this has worked in every other case in the history of the world, where the prior concept is identifiable as a source for the later concept (see the typology foreword). On that precedent, the simpler explanation is that Christianity borrowed from the sacrificial system of Judaism as an explanation for Jesus’ crucifixion and incorporated the whole Passover framework into their developing theology. When the New Testament authors deliberately use the language of the Passover it’s also a pretty big clue that they are deliberately working to make a connection. See my post on “Reconciling the crucified messiah” for additional thoughts on this topic.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
25 Ex. 12:13 The blood of the Lamb saves from wrath Romans 5:8
Response:
Same as #24
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
26 Ex. 12:21-27 Christ is our Passover 1 Cor. 5:7
Response:
Same as #24
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
27 Ex. 12:46 Not a bone of the Lamb to be broken John 19:31-36
Response:
Given that the Johannine text repeatedly emphasizes Jesus as fulfillment of the Passover tradition, it is no surprise that Ex 12:46 inspires a typological claim that Jesus’ legs were not broken. The author tips his hand in this regard by inserting an appeal to sworn testimony in v35 to support the claims of prophecy fulfillment in v36. Such appeals suggest that the author knows that the account is otherwise suspect.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
28 Ex. 15:2 His exaltation predicted as Yeshua Acts 7:55-56
Response:
I don’t see it. Can anybody explain how these verses are possibly connected in any way?
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
29 Ex. 15:11 His Character-Holiness Luke 1:35; Acts 4:27
Response:
There’s no sense in which the Exodus passage is messianic. It is specifically directed at Yahweh. The New Testament passages also have no clear connection to the verse in Exodus.

At best, this is a case of some attributes being assigned to Yahweh in the Old Testament and then the same or similar attributes being assigned to Jesus in the New Testament. I guess this falls under the category of ‘incidental fabrication’ as a very weak typological claim.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
30 Ex. 17:6 The Spiritual Rock of Israel 1 Cor. 10:4
Response:
Let me get this straight – Paul references the story of the “water from the rock” and then says that the rock is Christ, and we’re supposed to consider this to be a fulfilled prophecy? In the prior cases of Paul’s creative exegesis, we could at least see the potential for taking OT verses as being messianic. Now all we need is allegory to claim prophecy?

As an interesting aside, the 1 Corinthians verse indicates that Paul is affirming on a non-canonical tradition in which the rock was believed to have literally moved along with the Israelites in the desert.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
31 Ex. 33:19 His Character-Merciful Luke 1:72
Response:
Maybe I’m missing something, but from what I can see both verses say that it is Yahweh who shows mercy. This is never tied to Jesus and there’s definitely nothing prophetic.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
32 Lev. 1:9 His sacrifice a sweet smelling savor unto God Eph. 5:2
Response:
At best this is another claim of typological fulfillment in that the Levitical burnt offerings are a prefiguring of the crucifixion. This particular commonality – of it being a sweet fragrance (εὐωδίας) – is only applied to Jesus by virtue of Paul borrowing the LXX language (see #15) to make an inscrutable theological assertion.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
33 Lev. 14:11 The leper cleansed-Sign to priesthood Luke 5:12-14; Acts 6:7
Response:
Another claim of typological fulfillment. In this case, Jesus heals a leper in Luke 5 and then tells the man to go see the priest to perform the cleansing ritual in Leviticus 14. In other words, somebody other than Jesus plays the role of the priest in this episode.

I also encourage everybody to read all of Leviticus 14:1-11 and consider whether this sounds like the type of thing that an omniscience being would prescribe. Then stop and think about the fact that Jesus affirmed the practice even though he was supposedly a revolutionary voice who was revealing the true meaning of the Torah and ushering in the new covenant.

It isn’t clear how Acts 6:7 is relevant. It mentions priests, but that’s about the full extent of the connection that I can discern. Let me know if I missed something there.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
34 Lev. 16:15-17 Prefigures Christ’s once-for-all death Heb. 9:7-14
Response:
This is pretty much the same as #24, except that the proposed prefiguring is the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) instead of Passover. What interesting here is that the author of Hebrews seems to realize that the comparison is flawed because Yom Kippur is an annual atonement, not “once for all”. To resolve this, we’re told that Jesus’ blood has special eternal powers because:

  1. It isn’t animal (bull, goat or cow) [9:14, 10:4]
  2. It came through the eternal spirit [9:14]
  3. It was brought to the ‘true’ heavenly tabernacle [9:24]
  4. It is the priest’s own blood [9:25]

Of course, there isn’t any real justification given for these assertions, or why they solve the problem. It’s all just theological posturing to try and make the Christian story sound more acceptable in spite of its inconsistencies with Judaism.

The Hebrews passage also relies heavily on the new covenant of Jeremiah 31 to support the “once for all” concept. See #295 regarding that argument.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
35 Lev. 16:27 Suffering outside the Camp Matthew 27:33; Heb. 13:11-12
Response:
Leviticus is saying that the disposal of the sacrificial animals has to occur outside the camp. These are animals that are already very dead, so this has nothing to do with “suffering” outside the camp (which is language that comes from Hebrews 13). For this to have been a true parallel the crucifixion would have had to have occurred in the temple and then Jesus’ body disposed of outside the city.

Matthew 27:33 tells us that the location of the crucifixion was Golgatha, which was probably “outside the camp”, or in this case, outside the city walls. Hebrews 13 affirms that it occurred outside the city by way of reference to Leviticus 16 and uses this as a rhetorical device to persuade the reader that they also need to go outside the camp – an allusion to leaving behind the temple practices. So in the end, this is another example of a New Testament author straining to introduce typology in order to support his agenda.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
36 Lev. 17:11 The Blood-the life of the flesh Matthew 26:28; Mark 10:45
Response:
Maybe there’s a typology here in the concept of a blood sacrifice, but the distinction between this and #37 isn’t at all clear. I’m just going to move on.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
37 Lev. 17:11 It is the blood that makes atonement Rom. 3:23-24; 1 John 1:7
Response:
It seems to me that the explanation I gave in #24 works perfectly here if you just replace the word ‘Passover’ with ‘atonement’.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
38 Lev. 23:36-37 The Drink-offering: “If any man thirst” John 7:37-38
Response:
It’s difficult to see whether there’s even a typological link here, but it’s possible. The drink offering mentioned in Leviticus 23:37 refers back to the offering of wine in 23:13, which is also required in subsequent daily offerings. In practice, this became part of the morning service during the feast of tabernacles and grew to include the pouring of a large quantity of water in concert with the wine (see the Jewish Encyclopedia entry for more). The author of John may have had has this in mind as the context for Jesus’ pronouncement, which may or may not have occurred in one form or another. John explicitly identifies this event as occurring on the last day of the feast but Mishnah Sukkah 4.1 indicates that the libation of water was only observed for seven days. As such, it’s possible, though speculative, that the author’s purpose for highlighting the timing (last day) was to indicate that Jesus takes the place of the water offering.

So there might be a typology here, but it is extremely weak and not clearly discerned and, as with many typological claims, it rests on an inscrutable theological assertion.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
39 Num. 9:12 Not a bone of Him broken John 19:31-36
Response:
Same as #27
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
40 Num. 21:9 The serpent on a pole-Christ lifted up John 3:14-18; 12:32
Response:
This looks to be a rare case in which a typological claim isn’t reasonably attributed to fabrication of the later event – it’s generally accepted that Jesus was in fact lifted up on a pole and that this was not inspired by the narrative in Numbers 21. Even so, if that was truly intended to be a pre-figuring of Jesus then it’s rather odd that a snake was chosen (see #1) and that God approved of Hezekiah’s destruction of it (2 Kings 18:4). The Nehushtan most likely finds its origins in pre-Israelite Canaan, perhaps sharing ancient roots with the source for the Rod of Asclepius (Greek god of medicine) and tracing all the way back to the Sumerian diety Ningishzida. It’s presence as an object of worship in the temple at the time of Hezekiah betrays this origin and the pericope in Numbers was probably composed to explain the existence of that icon in Yahweh’s temple.

Though the crucifixion was not fabricated, it is very likely that Jesus never said any of the things attributed to him in these passages in John. The simple explanation, then, is that the author(s) of John perceived a parallel between the serpent on the pole and the crucifixion and used it to reinforce their ideology by introducing a typological claim. The majority of critical scholars agree that of all the gospels, the Johannine sayings and discourses are the furthest from the actual teachings of Jesus.

Lastly, as with #33, I encourage you to read Numbers 21:4-9 and contemplate what this tells us about Yahweh if it is true. What would we think about parents who responded to their complaining children this way?

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
41 Num. 24:17 Time: “I shall see him, but not now.” John 1:14; Galatians 4:4
Response:
On its own it isn’t obvious whether the prophecy in Numbers 24:17a was intended to be messianic or to speak of some other historical figure (e.g., David), but the full context seems to clearly point toward the latter:

“17 I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not close at hand. A star will march forth out of Jacob, and a scepter will rise out of Israel. He will crush the skulls of Moab, and the heads of all the sons of Sheth. 18 Edom will be a possession, Seir, his enemies, will also be a possession; but Israel will act valiantly. A ruler will be established from Jacob; he will destroy the remains of the city.

Hard to see how Jesus’ ministry fits this description, and the verses cited in John and Galatians don’t help shed any light on this.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
42 Deut. 18:15 “This is of a truth that prophet.” John 6:14
Response:
As a whole, the prophecy in Deuteronomy was most likely never intended to be messianic, though it certainly was interpreted as such in the early church. It is perhaps more accurately understood as a commentary on prophets in general, where the author is essentially offering an apologetic for why Yahweh does not speak directly to the people and instead speaks through prophets. This was probably composed in the 7th or 6th century BCE when the words and deeds of Elijah, Isaiah, Hosea and others were being raised up along with the Torah to centralize and codify Judaism around a set of texts and authorities. As such, this passage, more than anything, serves to reinforce the divine authority of the religion that is formalizing around those prophets, their successors and the associated traditions.

The verse in John is almost certainly a reference to the Deuteronomy prophecy, but all this tells us is that the author viewed Jesus as the messiah and also believed that the Deuteronomy verse was messianic. So we again have an inscrutable theological assertion about Jesus which offers no evidence as to whether he is the messiah in the first place.

Though there are no early indications of a messianic interpretation for the Deuteronomy passage, there are some extra-biblical hints of an expectation of a “prophet like Moses” before and around the time of Jesus. The first hint of such an expectation comes in 1 Maccabees 4:46 and 14:41, but this is a bit too cryptic to conclusively claim anything. Qumran yields slightly more explicit expectations in the Community Rule (1QS 9.11) and the Testimonia (4Q175 5-8). Lastly, in Antiquities 20:97-99 Josephus attests to the existence of the messianic candidate Theudas and his claim to be able to part the Jordan river.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
43 Deut. 18:15-16 “Had ye believed Moses, ye would believe me.” John 5:45-47
Response:
Same as #42. However, it’s also interesting to note that here we have Jesus affirming Mosaic composition of the Torah, a claim which modern scholarship has rendered highly dubious.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
44 Deut. 18:18 Sent by the Father to speak His word John 8:28-29
Response:
See #42 regarding the messianic character of the Deuteronomy text. These verses in John are not obviously derived from Deuteronomy but could still feasibly be a reference to that passage. If Jesus was believed to be the messiah, and the messiah was expected to be an agent of God in both the political and prophetic domains, then it is not unexpected that the author(s) of John would have Jesus claim that he spoke on God’s behalf.

As an aside, it’s interesting to note that the Deuteronomy passage includes instruction to kill false prophets (v20), so one might suggest that it did in fact play a role in Jesus’ death even if not in the prophetic sense.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
45 Deut. 18:19 Whoever will not hear must bear his sin Acts 3:22-23
Response:
See #42 regarding the messianic character of the Deuteronomy text. That aside, the passage in Acts isn’t really informative because it is just a straight quote from Deuteronomy, but from the table’s summary statement I suspect that the intended fulfillment is to see the Deuteronomy verse as a prophecy of the Christian soteriology – that salvation is not granted (I will personally hold responsible) to anybody who does not put their faith (anyone who then pays no attention to the words) in Jesus (that prophet speaks in my name).

I doubt that the development of Christian soteriology was motivated by this verse – I suspect that was driven more by eschatological concerns. Regardless, if we grant that this passage is messianic then there is a limited degree of correspondence. Even so, this relies on vague and subjective interpretations and still faces the problem that the required soteriology is an inscrutable theological assertion.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
46 Deut. 21:23 Cursed is he that hangs on a tree Gal. 3:10-13
Response:
There is no sense in which the Deuteronomy verse is messianic or even prophetic.

In Galatians, Paul is defending the claim that Torah observance is not sufficient for salvation and seizes on the opportunity to address two problems in one fell swoop. The first problem is that the Tanakh in general appears to conflict with this diminished view of the law. This is exemplified where Paul quotes from Deuteronomy 27:26 “Cursed is the one who refuses to keep the words of this law” and Leviticus 18:5 “you must keep my statutes and my regulations; anyone who does so will live by keeping them”. Paul cleverly deals with this by simultaneously addressing the second problem – that of a crucified messiah who is, according to Deuteronomy 21:23, cursed by virtue of having been hung on a tree. The trick is to say that the curse of Deuteronomy 27:26 was taken on our behalf when Jesus received the curse of Deuteronomy 21:23. It’s clever, but has no apparent basis in reality – it’s another inscrutable theological assertion. Paul was a skilled spin doctor and his ability to manipulate the Tanakh to fit his agenda was impressive; but there is no reason to believe that these manipulations are unveiling mysterious and obscure prophetic treasures.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
47 Joshua 5:14-15 The Captain of our salvation Heb. 2:10
Response:
It took some effort to find the link between these verses, but I think I see it. In Joshua we’re told that as he approaches Jericho he is met by a stranger who claims to be the commander of Yahweh’s army. In the LXX, this role is translated as ἀρχιστράτηγος. In Hebrews, the author identifies Jesus as the ἀρχ prefix means that both words are referring to a type of ‘head’ or ‘first position’ and the γος suffix references an agent), this masks a huge problem. The original Hebrew in Joshua is clearly identifying a military leader and this is reflected in the Greek translation, where the word includes a component (στράτη = ‘strategos’) that is completely absent from the text in Hebrews. So the two passages are really speaking of very different things and only appear similar because of a shared prefix and suffix in the Greek.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
48 Ruth 4:4-10 Christ, our kinsman, has redeemed us Eph. 1:3-7
Response:
This clearly isn’t a prophecy but let’s be generous and consider typology even though it is far from clear and isn’t even directly referenced as such in Ephesians, let alone the rest of the New Testament.

So here’s what I perceive is being proposed: that Boaz is considered a pre-figure of Jesus in that he redeems people (Naomi and Ruth) who had been separated from the family (through the deaths of their husbands) and restores them to the family (by marrying Ruth).

Of course, the notion of redemption through Jesus is an inscrutable theological assertion, but I also think this is worth discussing as a great example of how typology can be “uncovered” by sheer will. There are a lot of stories to choose from in the Old Testament and if you pick and choose certain characteristics from them then, yes, you can probably come up with some sort of typological connection to the Jesus story. In general, apologetics are replete with cherry picking and nobody ever offers an explanation for why we can ignore all the other parts of the story that don’t fit. I struggle to see why claims like this should be seen as anything more than the byproduct of confirmation bias and pattern seeking.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
49 1 Sam. 2:35 A Faithful Priest Heb. 2:17; 3:1-6; 7:24-25
Response:
The verse in Samuel is a prophecy, but it isn’t messianic. It is almost certainly a reference to Samuel himself and so finds its fulfillment in the subsequent chapters (which of course means that it wasn’t an actual prophecy but rather a “prophecy” that was written into the story as having been given prior to the rest of the story). Conversely, if the faithful priest is Jesus, then how does he “serve the anointed one”? Is he serving himself?

The verses in Hebrews refer to Jesus as a priest and to his faithfulness, but the Greek isn’t a direct match and so I doubt that the author of Hebrews was trying to align Jesus with the faithful priest of 1 Samuel 2:35.

Lastly, as with so many other claimed prophecies in this list, the fulfillment relies on an inscrutable theological assertion.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
50 1 Sam. 2:10 Shall be an anointed King to the Lord Mt. 28:18; John 12:15
Response:
As with #49, this is a non-messianic prophecy that was written back into the story and, as before, can only possibly be seen as having been fulfilled by Jesus if we first accept the inscrutable theological assertions about Jesus as “king” even though he never actually fulfilled that role. This title was only ever ascribed to Jesus because it was expected that the messiah be a king.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
51 2 Sam. 7:12 David’s Seed Mt. 1:1
Response:
The obvious reading of 2 Samuel 7:12 is as a reference to Solomon, the actual son of David who built the first temple. This accomplishment is identified in the subsequent verse (v13) and there is even a qualification in verse 12 to emphasize that this is a reference to an immediate descendant (אחריך אשר יצא ממעיך, translated in the NET as “one of your own sons”).

It’s important to have the correct perspective when reviewing these prophecy claims. Rather than accepting the prophetic utterances as having been given at the time and place indicated by the text, we need to realize that – as with every written history – the text was authored well after the historical context of the story and so is more representative of the perspective of the author than of the characters in the story itself. In this case, the author was fully aware that Solomon had built the temple but was probably also writing prior to the Babylonian exile and destruction of the temple, so that the subsequent verses reflect the still present hope for the eternal persistence of the Davidic line. It’s reasonable to suppose that these promises may have been imposed on the narrative in response to the looming threat of an end to that dynasty at the hands of Assyria (c. 700 BCE).

Also see #18 regarding the genealogies of Jesus that tie him to the Davidic line.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
52 2 Sam. 7:13 His Kingdom is everlasting 2 Peter 1:11
Response:
See #51 above for the proper context of this passage. From what I’ve seen, most Christian apologists do not reject the identification of Solomon in this passage; but they also go one step further and suggest a “dual fulfillment”, where Jesus satisfies the eternal hopes expressed by the author. The failed realization of those eternal hopes contributed to the eschatological fervor of the second temple period. After Cyrus enabled the restoration of an ethnic identity, the Jews saw a window of opportunity and built upon those pre-exilic hopes to interpret them as future promises rather than as dashed dreams. However, without that hopeful bias in place, there is no reason to read these passages as messianic and we can simply accept them for what they are.

The notion of an eternal kingdom in the New Testament is only partially derived from the passage in 2 Samuel 7. It is better understood as reflective of the broader eschatological views in the second temple period, which have their roots in multiple texts and ideas.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
53 2 Sam. 7:14a The Son of God Luke 1:32; Romans 1:3-4
Response:
Notice that this entry specifically calls out 14a (“I will become his father and he will become my son…”). Why just ‘a’? Maybe because the rest of the verse says “When he sins, I will correct him with the rod of men and with wounds inflicted by human beings.” Even if one wants to interpret this as a reference to the passion, it still seems to imply that the messianic figure is a faulty human who makes mistakes. One reconciliation is to suggest that the fault being corrected was not with Jesus but rather with mankind and the ‘correction’ was accepted by Jesus on our behalf. OK, but you are now imposing a ton of theology back onto a text which is otherwise absent such claims.

Quite simply, it is far more coherent to just read the whole passage in context as a reference to a literal son of David (i.e., Solomon, per #51 and #52) who the author knew would become king and who was seen as having been favored and guided by God as a father would a son.

See #65 and #152 for additional discussion on the concept of divine sonship in messianism.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
54 2 Sam. 7:16 David’s house established forever Luke 3:31; Rev. 22:16
Response:
Same as #52.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
55 2 Ki. 2:11 The bodily ascension to heaven illustrated Luke 24:51
Response:
See #4. This claim is even weaker than the claim regarding Enoch because this ascension (via chariots of fire) looks completely different than the description of Jesus’ ascension.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
56 1 Chr. 17:11 David’s Seed Matthew 1:1; 9:27
Response:
The author of the passage in Chronicles is just copying from 2 Samuel (or the same source as was used for 2 Samuel) – see #52 regarding that element. However, it’s worth noting that in contrast to the author of 2 Samuel, the chronicler was clearly writing after the Babylonian conquest. As a result, he offers an explanation for the failure of that promise.

The first hint comes in 1 Chronicles 9:1, where we’re told that “The people of Judah were carried away to Babylon because of their unfaithfulness.”

In 2 Chronicles the explanation becomes more explicit. In 6:16 the prayer of Solomon boldly amends the promise first introduced in 2 Samuel 7:

“Now, O Lord God of Israel, keep the promise you made to your servant, my father David, when you said, ‘You will never fail to have a successor ruling before me on the throne of Israel, provided that your descendants watch their step and obey my law as you have done.’”

This caveat is added here and in 2 Chronicles 33:8 despite that fact that it is absent from the account in 1 Chronicles 17, where the chronicler was respecting the tradition of the passage mirrored in 2 Samuel 7. Further, we’re then told that Yahweh affirms this caveat in a response to Solomon in 2 Chronicles 7:19-21, where he says:

“19 But if you people ever turn away from me, fail to obey the regulations and rules I instructed you to keep, and decide to serve and worship other gods, 20 then I will remove you from my land I have given you, I will abandon this temple I have consecrated with my presence, and I will make you an object of mockery and ridicule among all the nations. 21 As for this temple, which was once majestic, everyone who passes by it will be shocked and say, ‘Why did the Lord do this to this land and this temple?’”

So, all of this is clearly written from the perspective of somebody who is writing the events of the Babylonian exile back into the narrative as part of an effort to (a) explain away the failed hopes of the earlier texts as a consequence of religious unfaithfulness, and (b) foster support for the restoration of the temple and dedication to the religious structure through a combination of fear mongering and hope for the future. These are the seeds of the messianic culture which gave rise to Christianity.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
57 1 Chr. 17:12-13 To reign on David’s throne forever Luke 1:32-33
Response:
Same as #52. As with #56, the chronicler is directly copying from 2 Samuel, or the same source text.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
58 1 Chr. 17:13 “I will be His Father, He…my Son.” Heb. 1:5
Response:
Same as #53. As with #56, the chronicler is directly copying from 2 Samuel, or the same source text.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
59 Job 9:32-33 Mediator between man and God 1 Timothy 2:5
Response:
The passage in Job certainly isn’t prophetic but this could be interpreted as a reference to the pre-incarnate Jesus. It’s unlikely that 1 Timothy is alluding to Job since the only common language is the use of μεσίτης (mediator). However, both texts refer to a mediator acting between God and man, so it’s not an unreasonable conclusion. Regardless, this is still an inscrutable theological assertion and the connection is extremely weak.

See #60 for a more exhaustive discussion on the identity of the mediator in Job.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
60 Job 19:23-27 The Resurrection predicted John 5:24-29
Response:
The passage in John 5 speaks to the general resurrection rather than Jesus’ resurrection, so I don’t understand why these verses were selected to identify fulfillment if the intent is to say that Jesus fulfilled the passage in Job. Regardless, it is still possible to read Jesus into the verse in Job, so let’s explore that a bit.

First, note that these verses in Job have challenged exegetes for centuries. As a whole, the book of Job is perhaps the most difficult Hebrew in the Tanakh and some consider these verses to be among the most difficult to interpret (and thus translate). In fact, many scholars have concluded that the text we have is a corruption of the original because that’s the best explanation for the difficulties. With that in mind, here’s how I see it.

The compositional history of the book of Job is notoriously difficult to nail down but most scholars believe that it originates with a relatively primitive tradition, where ‘God’ is the supreme deity who presides over the divine council, a divine king in a manner consistent with other near eastern religions. There are echoes of this throughout the Tanakh, but this context is perhaps nowhere more evident than in Job.

Upon establishing that perspective, we can look at the mediator \ advocate \ intercessor spoken of throughout Job (most clearly in Job 9, 16 and 33) as a lower, personal deity (like a guardian angel) who interacts with the council on Job’s behalf. It’s likely that this figure is also envisioned as the redeemer of Job 19:25. We can then see verses 26-27 as building upon that perspective to say that as Job approaches death this intercessor will petition the divine king to come down from the heavenly realm to stand on the earth to speak with Job face to face to explain the tragedies that have transpired. Verse 28 then envisions Job’s friends asking how they could possibly seek vengeance on God if he comes to earth and his explanation reveals that he (God) truly is the source of the ruin.

That said, I don’t really know whether this is the best way to understand this passage – but it makes a lot of sense to me. The passage does seem to speak of a redeemer figure, a theophany and possibly a resurrection (though that would be inconsistent with other passages in Job). These all certainly can be related to the orthodox picture of Jesus and so it’s possible that there’s something here – but it is extremely difficult to discern and any interpretation should be considered uncertain.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
61 Psa. 2:1-3 The enmity of kings foreordained Acts 4:25-28
Response:
As noted below (#65), this Psalm was a favorite of the early church for its support of the messianic divine sonship motif. Though the Psalm doesn’t directly express any eschatological concepts, the promises of favor and political dominance for the anointed king are compatible with the eschatological messianic expectations that would later develop. So it’s no surprise that Peter is said to quote from this in Acts and to have attributed the scheming of rulers in the Psalm to Herod and Pontius Pilate. Of course, the plain reading of the Psalm shows that it is speaking of contemporary conflicts between Israel and other nations. One could still claim typological fulfillment, but this passage wouldn’t have even been on the early church’s radar if the king had not been identified as ‘anointed’ (mashiach = Christ, v2) and claimed as Jehovah’s son (v7). The adoption of this text was driven not by its specific content but by the inclusion of a couple key words, and that is a poor justification for the claim of prophecy.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
62 Psa. 2:2 To own the title, Anointed (Christ) John 1:41; Acts 2:36
Response:
This claim has it backward. The use of mashiach in v2 serves to distinguish the Israeli king, chosen by God, from the lesser kings of other nations who lack divine favor. This distinction evolved over the subsequent centuries to specifically identify an eschatological persona, which the early church assigned then to Jesus. It is not that Jesus happened to be called Christ and that this prophetically matched the word used in the Psalm but rather that title was given to Jesus only because he was perceived to be the eschatological figure which was ultimately derived from the Psalm (among many other passages).
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
63 Psa. 2:6 His Character-Holiness John 8:46; Revelation 3:7
Response:
The holiness in the Psalm is attributed to Zion, not the king. And even if we grant that the holiness is being indirectly attributed to the king by placing him at Zion, this is still an inscrutable theological assertion.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
64 Psa. 2:6 To own the title King Mt. 2:2
Response:
As with #62, the kingship assigned to Jesus is solely a derivative of the attribution of the messianic persona. When viewed from outside the Christian tradition, this is actually a significant fault in the whole program because the Old Testament messianic persona clearly entailed a far more political role than Jesus ever approached.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
65 Psa. 2:7 Declared the Beloved Son Matthew 3:17; Romans 1:4
Response:
A proper understanding of the Psalm is captured well by the accompanying note in the NET translation:

‘You are my son!’ The Davidic king was viewed as God’s “son” (see 2 Sam 7:14; Ps 89:26-27). The idiom reflects ancient Near Eastern adoption language associated with covenants of grant, by which a lord would reward a faithful subject by elevating him to special status, referred to as “sonship.” Like a son, the faithful subject received an “inheritance,” viewed as an unconditional, eternal gift. Such gifts usually took the form of land and/or an enduring dynasty. See M. Weinfeld, “The Covenant of Grant in the Old Testament and in the Ancient Near East,” JAOS 90 (1970): 184-203, for general discussion and some striking extra-biblical parallels.

Also see “King and Messiah as Son of God: Divine, Human, and Angelic Messianic Figures in Biblical and Related Literature” (Collins 2008) for a more exhaustive discussion of the historical context behind messianic divine sonship.

This particular Psalm is closely related to 2 Samuel 7 (see #53) and this reveals another shared influence between Christianity and the Qumran community, who latched on to both of these passages in support of the concept of messianic divine sonship (per 4Q174). See #152 for additional discussion.

As with the previous entries for this Psalm (#62 and #64), the divine sonship assigned to Jesus is therefore a derivative of the attribution of the messianic persona, where the cultural origins of Christianity emphasized this aspect of the messiah.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
66 Psa. 2:7-8 The Crucifixion and Resurrection intimated Acts 13:29-33
Response:
Acts reports that Paul quotes from this Psalm and claims its fulfillment in Jesus. To say that the “crucifixion and resurrection are intimated” is a horribly misleading summary. There is nothing of the sort in Psalm 2:7-8. Those events just happen to be the last things mentioned in the passage in Acts before the Psalm is quoted. Instead, the text in Acts is best understood as claiming that the divine sonship attributed to Jesus is prophesied in the messianic portrayal in the Psalm. See #65 above regarding that.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
67 Psa. 2:8-9 Rule the nations with a rod of iron Rev. 2:27; 12:5; 19:15
Response:
Sorry, you don’t get to claim prophecy fulfillment by reference to new prophecies in Revelation, even if it is borrowing the language from this Psalm.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
68 Psa. 2:12 Life comes through faith in Him John 20:31
Response:
First, this portion of the Psalm is in reference to Jehovah, not the messianic king. Second, the text isn’t offering “life through faith” so much as it is threatening that God’s anger will lead to your death if you don’t sincerely honor him. And lastly, this is another inscrutable theological assertion.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
69 Psa. 8:2 The mouths of babes perfect His praise Mt. 21:16
Response:
This claim is much more interesting than it appears at first glance. The pericope in Matthew has children proclaiming Jesus to be the son of David (messiah) and then responding to the indignation of the religious authorities by quoting Psalm 8:2 – but what is significant is that Matthew has Jesus quoting from the LXX. Where the LXX has children proclaiming praise to master Jehovah, the Masoretic text appears to be using young children as symbols of weak vessels through whom God can demonstrate his strength. The divergence is enough to say that the Masoretic version would not be an apt fit in the Matthean context. Unfortunately, the DSS doesn’t look helpful here as I was unable to locate any scrolls that contain the second verse of the Psalm. So though it’s relatively inconclusive whether the New Testament quotation is even an appropriate use of the original text, that doesn’t change the fact that the Psalm isn’t a messianic prophecy. As to why the author of Matthew may have framed a pericope around this verse, I would guess that it has to do with the language of Psalm 8 (discussed in #70 below) combined with a desire to present Jesus as seeing himself worthy of receiving praise that would normally have been reserved for Jehovah.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
70 Psa. 8:5-6 His humiliation and exaltation Heb. 2:5-9
Response:
It’s pretty clear that the Psalm is speaking of mankind and isn’t messianic. The passage in Hebrews also uses this verse in reference to mankind but then also uses it in reference to Jesus. Why? Well, Psalm 8:4 identifies mankind as “son of man”, the term Daniel uses in reference to the eschatological messiah and which the Gospels place on Jesus’ lips in reference to himself. It seems likely, then, that the inclusion of this construct is a primary reason for the attention give to the Psalm in Hebrews 2 and why it was understood by some early Christians to be a messianic text.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
71 Psa. 9:7-10 Judge the world in righteousness Acts 17:31
Response:
This is another Psalm that is absent any messianic connotations. The judgements referenced are rendered by Jehovah and are contemporary, not eschatological. Furthermore, the claimed fulfillment in Acts is just another prophecy about the eschatological judgement. As I’ve said before, you can’t claim prophecy fulfillment by pointing to a new prophecy.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
72 Psa. 16:10 Was not to see corruption Acts 13:35
Response:
This is another case where the LXX uniquely provides opportunity for reading Jesus back into the text. The first opportunity comes from the fact that the Psalmist refers to himself in the third person as Jehovah’s “holy one” (in both the MT and LXX). Even though this is a parallel with the previous line in the verse, which places the author in that role, the grammatical change opens the door to a messianic interpretation. The second opportunity comes only in the LXX, where the Hebrew word “shakhat”, meaning pit or grave, is translated to “diaphthoran”, meaning decay. Note that shakhat is used nine times in the Psalms and in every case it is unequivocally referring to a grave or pit, so there’s no precedent in the Psalms for the LXX interpretation. Regardless, it should be clear what this change offers – the verse can now be applied to Jesus as the “holy one” whom God did not allow to decay, as is done in Acts. But this simply isn’t supported by the original text.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
73 Psa. 16:9-11 Was to arise from the dead John 20:9
Response:
There’s nothing in the Psalm about resurrection. The author is praising Jehovah for sustaining his life and not allowing him to die prematurely. See #72 to understand why this passage was interpreted by some in the early church as describing a resurrection. The cited verse in John carries no allusions to the Psalm.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
74 Psa. 17:15 The resurrection predicted Luke 24:6
Response:
Again, no reason to read this as a messianic prophecy in any way. The purported prediction of a resurrection comes merely from the use of “quwts”, meaning to awake, in the Hebrew text (in this case the LXX does not include the relevant language). There’s no inference of a prior death. The word choice is a bit strange but would make sense if the petitionary prayer is understood to be occurring at the end of the day, such that the Psalmist expects God to reveal himself by answering the petition the next day (after he awakes). The cited verse in Luke carries no allusions to the Psalm.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
75 Psa. 18:2-3 The horn of salvation Luke 1:69-71
Response:
The passage in Luke may very well be borrowing the “horn of salvation” language found in Psalm 18:2. Regardless, the Psalm is not messianic and this is another inscrutable theological assertion. Again – prophecy fulfillment does not come simply by virtue of a New Testament author applying Old Testament language to Jesus.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
76 Psa. 22:1 Forsaken because of sins of others 2 Cor. 5:21
Response:
There is absolutely nothing in this Psalm to indicate that the “forsaking” was due to the sins of others.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
77 Psa. 22:1 “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?” Mt. 27:46
Response:
It is clear that the gospels are deliberately drawing upon Psalm 22 in their passion narratives. That is probably worth a more detailed exploration at some point but I’ll keep the discussion relatively brief here. Regardless, the author(s) of this listing have gone far above and beyond the gospel authors by proposing eighteen connections within Psalm 22, as captured in #76 – #93.

While the influence of Psalm 22 is evident in the passion narratives of the gospels, I am not aware of references in any earlier texts (e.g., Pauline epistles), so it is possible that the connection to Jesus originated with Mark. However, the inclusion of the exclamation in Aramaic could also indicate a pre-Markan source for this particular element, pointing toward a feature of the early oral tradition that may have been the catalyst for the larger adoption of Psalm 22 into the passion story. I would even say it’s possible that Jesus actually uttered the Aramaic exclamation at some point and that this is what served as the basis for the elevation of Psalm 22 in the early church. That would at least explain how a Psalm with limited messianic \ eschatological content rose to such prominence. But even if we grant this claim – that Jesus uttered an Aramaic version of Psalm 22:1 – we still have not established prophecy. We have only established that a later figure (Jesus) knew of an earlier writing (Psalm 22:1) and spoke it.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
78 Psa. 22:2 Darkness upon Calvary for three hours Mt. 27:45
Response:
Though the contextual narrative in Matthew (and all the gospels) is clearly borrowing from Psalm 22 I doubt that the story of the darkness is derivative of this verse, which only suggests that the author is in a continual state of prayer.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
79 Psa. 22:7 They shoot out the lip and shake the head Mt. 27:39-44
Response:
The use of Psalm 22:7-8 is first found in the Markan narrative, where the head shaking and verbal mockery are presented. The surrounding context and similarity are sufficient to infer that the author of Mark was aiming for correspondence with the Psalm. Matthew, however, takes the Markan text and makes this more explicit by nearly quoting from the LXX version of Psalm 22:8 in verse 43 (there is not perfect agreement but several of the same words and word sequences are employed. It’s possible that a variant of the LXX was used, or that the author didn’t aim for a direct quotation).

One could argue that the close correspondence between the Psalm and the synoptics is a consequence of the close correspondence between the actual events and that the authors were simply reinforcing this congruence, but I find it much more parsimonious to see the Psalm as a direct influence on the narrative, even if there was some degree of mockery involved in the actual crucifixion event.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
80 Psa. 22:8 “He trusted in God, let Him deliver Him” Mt. 27:43
Response:
See #79 above.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
81 Psa. 22:9-10 Born the Saviour Luke 2:7
Response:
No mention of a savior in any of the referenced passages. At best, they both speak of somebody being born. Are we really trying to count the Psalmists reference to their own unexceptional birth as a prophecy of Jesus’ birth?
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
82 Psa. 22:12-13 They seek His death John 19:6
Response:
This is only possibly construed as a prophecy by virtue of the adoption of the Psalm 22 to inform the passion as a whole. This particular passage does not appear to have been specifically incorporated into the passion narrative, but it’s trivially true that for Jesus to have been crucified, somebody or some group sought his death, just as it is trivially true that a Psalm lamenting defeat at the hands of others infers the existence of those other parties.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
83 Psa. 22:14 His blood poured out when they pierced His side John 19:34
Response:
The LXX version carries some roughly similar language to John (“ὕδωρ ἐξεχύθην” in Psalms vs “ἐξῆλθεν εὐθὺς αἷμα καὶ ὕδωρ” in John) but I suspect that the Psalm was not the only motivating factor behind the Johannine text. Additional clues are found in review of the surrounding context in John. The passage closes in John 19:37 by citing fulfillment of Zechariah 12:10, which features the “pouring out” of the spirit of grace. Earlier, in John 7:38, Jesus is portrayed as having said that he is the fulfillment of scripture wherein “a stream from his abdomen flows with living water”. That reference is difficult to source, but is perhaps most similar to the flowing of living water from Jerusalem in Zechariah 14:8, which is preceded by Zechariah 13:1 speaking of an eschatological fountain. John also references Zechariah 9:9 and places Jesus and his disciples near the Mount of Olives (Zechariah 14:4) at his arrest.

Collectively, these observations indicate that the author of John probably understood Jesus in the light of the eschatological context of Zechariah and integrated that perspective with the pre-existing thematic adoption of Psalm 22, introducing this verse to tie together those connections.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
84 Psa. 22:14-15 Suffered agony on Calvary Mark 15:34-37
Response:
This seems to be going beyond #83 and #85 to capture the pitiful disposition described by the Psalmist. As before, it is trivially true that the crucifixion event and the lamenting of defeat both entail suffering. The original adoption of this Psalm was certainly encouraged by the common theme of suffering but this is so vague as to have limited application to the claim of prophecy.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
85 Psa. 22:15 He thirsted John 19:28
Response:
There isn’t a clear linguistic connection to the Psalm here but the concept of thirst does offer a parallel. The verse in John possibly suggests that the thirst is linked to some sort of prophecy fulfillment, which may or may not be rooted in Psalm 22:15 or, more likely, Psalm 69:21, which aligns with the subsequent verses (John 19:29-30) that relay the tradition of Jesus being offered sour wine (or vinegar) on a stick (see #127). This tradition is also present in the synoptics; so either the synoptics or a common source served as input for the author of John. Regardless, the separate pre-crucifixion refusal to accept the offer of wine in the synoptics (Mark 15:23, Matt 27:34 and absent from Luke) is very likely related to Jesus’ statement in the synoptic last supper accounts, wherein he asserts that he will not drink of the fruit of the vine until he drinks it fresh in the kingdom of God comes (Matt 26:29, Mark 14:25, Luke 22:18). This carries forward into the offer of sour wine on the cross and relates to the exclamation of thirst in John 19:28 because I think the exclamation is primarily a setup for the Johannine “correction” of the tradition.

Why do I suggest that the author of John was trying to correct the tradition? The Johannine eschatology differs from the synoptics in that it appears to be more closely aligned with a realized eschatology – meaning that the kingdom is a state which Jesus was ushering in with his ministry rather than at the end of time. Since the author of John was familiar with the sour wine tradition, he was very likely also familiar with the last supper statement about not drinking wine until the kingdom of God had arrived, even though the establishment of the eucharist is absent from the author’s otherwise elaborate account of the supper (a discussion for another time). So in John 19:28 we see that Jesus first realizes that everything required by the scriptures had been fulfilled, which in the Johannine context implies that the kingdom has been established. So John stands in contrast to the pre-crucifixion rejection of wine and the failure to receive the unrequested offer sour wine in the synoptics and instead has Jesus explicitly asking for and receiving it (John 19:29). This serves to demonstrate that the kingdom had been established, as emphasized by the juxtaposition with the subsequent exclamation of completion.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
86 Psa. 22:16 They pierced His hands and His feet John 19:34-37; 20:27
Response:
I can’t possibly hope to address this contentious translation any better than the treatment given by Paul Davidson on his blog. In addition, it is worth noting that despite the fact that the passion narratives appear to have drawn upon Psalm 22 as a whole, this particular verse was never singled out as prophetic until the middle of the second century by Justin Martyr. It seems quite possible that verse 16 played little to no role in the adoption of the Psalm for the passion.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
87 Psa. 22:17-18 Stripped Him before the stares of men Luke 23:34-35
Response:
This is redundant with #88.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
88 Psa. 22:18 They parted His garments John 19:23-24
Response:
The casting of lots for Jesus’ clothing is blatantly presented as a mirror of Psalm 22:18. The Psalm is explicitly quoted in the referenced verses in John and even the earliest version of the account in Mark 15:24 borrows the LXX language even if it does not quote and reference it precisely. It is very likely that Jesus was in fact stripped naked as part of the crucifixion sequence, as this was typical, but I see little reason to suspect that the tradition of casting lots is anything but an intentional fabrication derived from the Psalm. I’m open to hearing arguments for the authenticity of that particular aspect.

Given the likelihood that Jesus was stripped of his clothing, this actually turns out to be one of the better prophecy claims I’ve covered. However, I find it more accurate to see that this is another moderate similarity that was latched onto by the early church and incorporated into the tradition so that the narrative we have overstates the degree of correspondence (i.e., by adding the casting the lots).

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
89 Psa. 22:20-21 He committed Himself to God Luke 23:46
Response:
I was not able to identify the connection being claimed here. Please advise if you can explain.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
90 Psa. 22:20-21 Satanic power bruising the Redeemer’s heel Heb. 2:14
Response:
Same problem as above; I just don’t see the connection. However, Psalm 22:22 (#91) is directly quoted by Hebrews 2:12. I can’t help but wonder if somewhere back in the distant history of this list that connection accidentally morphed into something less recognizable, though even the early versions of the list contains the current formulation. Please let me know if you can help make sense of this claim.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
91 Psa. 22:22 His Resurrection declared John 20:17
Response:
I see nothing close to a resurrection in the Psalm. I suppose this could be referring to the change in tone that starts with the end of v21 and transitions into a praise of thanks for God having heard the lament of the earlier verses. Again, let me know if you can help clarify the intent here.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
92 Psa. 22:27-28 He shall be the governor of the nations Col. 1:16
Response:
The passage in Colossians does not appear to have any textual or thematic relation to the Psalm. Furthermore, it is speaking of Jesus as creator, not as a political entity.

The Psalm clearly distinguishes between YHWH and the oppressed figure (the author) throughout the text. The author has so far only been taken as the prefigure of Jesus, but verses 27-28 are obviously describing YHWH. So this entry is implying that we should somehow read both the author and YHWH as prophetic figures of Jesus. Not to mention that fact that this is another inscrutable theological assertion.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
93 Psa. 22:31 “It is finished” John 19:30; Heb. 10:10-18
Response:
The only connection I can make out here is the concept of accomplishment or completion. John uses “tetelestai” but this isn’t in the LXX for the Psalm, so I don’t see that the Psalm was ever in view. Regardless, the Psalmist is speaking of a hope in Jehovah’s accomplishment of rescuing of the oppressed. So as with the previous entry, we’re being asked to accept the prophetic claim that Jesus is prefigured by dual roles in the Psalm; both the oppressed figure and the rescuer of the oppressed – the latter being a quality that is only ascribed to Jesus as an inscrutable theological assertion.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
94 Psa. 23:1 “I am the Good Shepherd” John 10:11; 1 Peter 2:25
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
95 Psa. 24:3 His exaltation predicted Acts 1:11; Philippians 2:9
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
96 Psa. 30:3 His resurrection predicted Acts 2:32
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
97 Psa. 31:5 “Into thy hands I commit my spirit” Luke 23:46
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
98 Psa. 31:11 His acquaintances fled from Him Mark 14:50
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
99 Psa. 31:13 They took counsel to put Him to death Mt. 27:1; John 11:53
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
100 Psa. 31:14-15 “He trusted in God, let Him deliver him” Mt. 27:43
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
101 Psa. 34:20 Not a bone of Him broken John 19:31-36
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
102 Psa. 35:11 False witnesses rose up against Him Mt. 26:59
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
103 Psa. 35:19 He was hated without a cause John 15:25
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
104 Psa. 38:11 His friends stood afar off Luke 23:49
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
105 Psa. 38:12 Enemies try to entangle Him by craft Mark 14:1; Mt. 22:15
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
106 Psa. 38:12-13 Silent before His accusers Mt. 27:12-14
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
107 Psa. 38:20 He went about doing good Acts 10:38
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
108 Psa. 40:2-5 The joy of His resurrection predicted John 20:20
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
109 Psa. 40:6-8 His delight-the will of the Father John 4:34; Heb. 10:5-10
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
110 Psa. 40:9 He was to preach the Righteousness in Israel Mt. 4:17
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
111 Psa. 40:14 Confronted by adversaries in the Garden John 18:4-6
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
112 Psa. 41:9 Betrayed by a familiar friend John 13:18
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
113 Psa. 45:2 Words of Grace come from His lips John 1:17; Luke 4:22
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
114 Psa. 45:6 To own the title, God or Elohim Heb. 1:8
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
115 Psa. 45:7 A special anointing by the Holy Spirit Mt. 3:16; Heb. 1:9
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
116 Psa. 45:7-8 Called the Christ (Messiah or Anointed) Luke 2:11
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
117 Psa. 45:17 His name remembered forever Ephesians 1:20-21, Heb. 1:8
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
118 Psa. 55:12-14 Betrayed by a friend, not an enemy John 13:18
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
119 Psa. 55:15 Unrepentant death of the Betrayer Matthew 27:3-5; Acts 1:16-19
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
120 Psa. 68:18 To give gifts to men Eph. 4:7-16
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
121 Psa. 68:18 Ascended into Heaven Luke 24:51
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
122 Psa. 69:4 Hated without a cause John 15:25
Response:
In a manner similar to Psalm 22 and Isaiah 52:13-53:12, this Psalm presents the image of a downtrodden or suffering figure (i.e., a personification of a politically subordinate Israel) which transitions into an eschatological hope for the restoration of that figure (i.e., Israel as a politically dominant nation). The juxtaposition of these themes endears these passages to an eschatologically grounded Christian tradition built upon a messiah as an individual who suffered and then rose victorious. However, in the case of Psalm 69 it is less obvious that the text was venerated and used as the inspiration for the gospel narratives.

In this particular case the correspondence is almost certainly driven by the quotation in John, but is more generally appealing to an image of innocence that was applied to Jesus and emphasized throughout the New Testament. Though I do not place Jesus within the communities of zealots in the first century, I do find it hard to believe that the crucifixion arose in the absence of any political concern. There was at least some association with zealots (Simon) and almost certainly some concern with Jesus’ following and the eschatological message which entailed an end of Roman rule. Then there’s that whole clearing of the temple incident (see #124). So this prophecy only holds up if we grant that the first-person, present tense personification of Israel is a prophetic foreshadowing of the messiah and if we grant the theological assertion of Jesus’ innocence, as assumed by the claim of fulfillment in John.

This is also a good opportunity to observe how these prophetic claims can employ cherry-picking. In the very next verse, Psalm 69:5, the Psalmist admits his foolishness and guilt. If we are to apply the innocence of verse 4 (and all of the Psalm) to Jesus, why should we suddenly exclude the subsequent verse from relevancy? Perhaps this should instead be taken to count against the prophetic interpretation?

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
123 Psa. 69:8 A stranger to own brethren John 1:11; 7:5
Response:
Yes, both the Psalm and the verses in John identify the figure as being forsaken by their own people or brothers. I see no incidental or intentional fabrication, so this is one of the few times that I see nothing but coincidence – but it certainly isn’t so improbable and specific so as to make it remarkable.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
124 Psa. 69:9 Zealous for the Lord’s House John 2:17
Response:
John quotes from the Psalm here and the context is certainly appropriate, but I do not believe that the cleansing of the temple was inspired by the verse in Psalms. I’m inclined to believe that this pericope is rooted in some sort of actual event and that this event was contributed to the eventual crucifixion. But in evaluating the claim of prophecy, we have only a pious attitude or disposition being proclaimed in the Psalm, so this is again very vague and does not clearly entail the cleansing event. It is only the questionable interpretation of the Psalm as applicable to a messianic individual and the quotation in John which support the claim.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
125 Psa. 69:14-20 Messiah’s anguish of soul before crucifixion Mt. 26:36-45
Response:
The referenced text of Matthew does not appear to contain any specific allusions or connections with the content of the Psalm. I see this as with #84, in that we have only a vague similarity through the theme of a suffering figure, which is not sufficient to warrant prophetic significance.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
126 Psa. 69:20 “My soul is exceeding sorrowful.” Mt. 26:38
Response:
As with #125, I do not see any specific allusions or connections to the Psalm in the verse in Matthew. At best there is just a parallel expression of despair, which is vague and reasonably expected in either context.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
127 Psa. 69:21 Given vinegar in thirst Mt. 27:34
Response:
Of all the verses in the Psalm, this is probably the best candidate for a prophetic event, and I think there is in fact some relationship from this verse to the gospels. The link from here to the tradition of Jesus having been offered sour wine (or vinegar) is frequently identified in commentaries and notes on the passage, and some believe that the claim to scripture fulfillment in John 19:28 is pointing here. I suspect that the tradition was tied to this Psalm, but that there’s also more to the story. The tradition is first reported by Mark and, though it may be rooted in some actual observation, I see that it was also composed in relation to the statement of “not drinking the fruit of the vine until I drink it new (or fresh) in the kingdom of God” in the last supper (see #85). Matthew then builds on the tradition in Mark and expands the connection to this Psalm by offering a mixture of gall in the pre-crucifixion offering of wine (the Psalm places gall in the offered food). Luke separately but similarly builds on the Markan tradition to emphasize the connection with the Psalm by making it part of the mockery of the oppressors (as is the case in the Psalm).

I don’t have any strong opinion here as to whether the sour wine tradition is a fabrication. If I had to guess, I would suggest that there was some underlying event that was observed and was then extrapolated and tied into both the Psalm and the last supper. It is known that Roman soldiers received Posca and that wine was widely used medicinally in that era. So there was possibly an observed event in which Jesus was offered but did not receive wine in the context of the crucifixion. This then evolved into a parallel of Psalm 69:21 and the failure to receive sour wine was interpreted as symbolic of the imminent eschatological hope, to be realized with an abundance of fresh wine in the eternal kingdom (Amos 9:13-14). This was then tied back into the tradition of the establishment of the eucharist at the last supper.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
128 Psa. 69:26 The Saviour given and smitten by God John 17:4; 18:11
Response:
The Psalmist does attribute the afflictions to God’s will and that the verses in John reflect a similar sentiment. However, the notion of God’s sovereignty is not foreign to either context and the connection is extremely vague. There is minimal specificity in this claim and a contentious claim that the Psalmist’s prophetic personification of Israel can be applied to a messianic figure.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
129 Psa. 72:10-11 Great persons were to visit Him Mt. 2:1-11
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
130 Psa. 72:16 The corn of wheat to fall into the Ground John 12:24-25
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
131 Psa. 72:17 Belief on His name will produce offspring John 1:12-13
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
132 Psa. 72:17 All nations shall be blessed by Him Gal. 3:8
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
133 Psa. 72:17 All nations shall call Him blessed John 12:13; Rev. 5:8-12
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
134 Psa. 78:1-2 He would teach in parables Mt. 13:34-35
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
135 Psa. 78:2b To speak the Wisdom of God with authority Mt. 7:29
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
136 Psa. 80:17 The Man of God’s right hand Mark 14:61-62
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
137 Psa. 88 The Suffering and Reproach of Calvary Mt. 27:26-50
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
138 Psa. 88:8 They stood afar off and watched Luke 23:49
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
139 Psa. 89:27 Firstborn Col. 1:15-18
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
140 Psa. 89:27 Emmanuel to be higher than earthly kings Luke 1:32-33
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
141 Psa. 89:35-37 David’s Seed, throne, kingdom endure forever Luke 1:32-33
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
142 Psa. 89:36-37 His character-Faithfulness Revelation 1:5; 19:11
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
143 Psa. 90:2 He is from everlasting (Micah 5:2) John 1:1
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
144 Psa. 91:11-12 Identified as Messianic; used to tempt Christ Luke 4:10-11
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
145 Psa. 97:9 His exaltation predicted Acts 1:11; Ephesians 1:20
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
146 Psa. 100:5 His character-Goodness Mt. 19:16-17
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
147 Psa. 102:1-11 The Suffering and Reproach of Calvary John 19:16-30
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
148 Psa. 102:25-27 Messiah is the Preexistent Son Heb. 1:10-12
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
149 Psa. 109:25 Ridiculed Mt. 27:39
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
150 Psa. 110:1 Son of David Mt. 22:42-43
Response:
This claim appears to be reading the Psalm through the lens of the quotation in Matthew while simultaneously misinterpreting Matthew. The original text does not infer that the king is a descendant of David – and this is also in fact how Jesus is said to have interpreted the Psalm in the dialog in Matthew! So the pericope in Matthew is not suggesting that the messiah (Jesus) is the son of David, but rather that the messiah is the son of God and is accorded a higher authority than would be granted to a messiah only on the basis of their Davidic lineage.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
151 Psa. 110:1 To ascend to the right-hand of the Father Mark 16:19
Response:
There is no ascension language here. The placing of the king at Jehovah’s right hand is simply identifying the favor and place of honor bestowed upon the king by Jehovah.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
152 Psa. 110:1 David’s son called Lord Mt. 22:44-45
Response:
There is no doubt that this Psalm was favored by the early Christians with an affinity that is far more pronounced than in any other eschatological community from that period. The key observation here is that the original Psalm identifies God as ‘Jehovah’ and the messianic king as ‘adon’ (i.e., they’re clearly distinct). However, the LXX version of the Psalm uses the same Greek word, ‘kyrios’, for both pronouns and the Pauline epistles make it clear that ‘kyrios’ was a title applied to Jesus in the early church. It is a matter of debate as to whether the application of ‘kyrios’ to Jesus was deliberate – intended to emphasize his divinity in accordance with the use of ‘kyrios’ in the LXX (and possibly this Psalm in particular) – or simply an artifact of choosing a title to capture the authority believed to have been bestowed to Jesus. Either way, that word association would appear to be a driving force behind the favor granted to this Psalm by the church.

So, despite the observation in #150 that a Davidic descendant is not obviously in view, there is certainly an elevation of a king which corresponds with the messianic expectations and which played perfectly into the language adopted by the early Christian communities, such that Jesus was easily read back into the LXX version of the Psalm. It is also important to note that the use of ‘adon’ places the author – presumably David – in a subordinate relationship to the king, so the original text does infer a figure who is separate from and greater than David (though it’s possible that David was referring to himself in the 3rd person, or that the Psalm was not actually written by David and only attributed to him).

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
153 Psa. 110:4 A priest after Melchizedek’s order Heb. 6:20
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
154 Psa. 112:4 His character-Compassionate, Gracious, et al Mt. 9:36
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
155 Psa. 118:17-18 Messiah’s Resurrection assured Luke 24:5-7; 1 Cor. 15:20
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
156 Psa. 118:22-23 The rejected stone is Head of the corner Mt. 21:42-43
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
157 Psa. 118:26a The Blessed One presented to Israel Mt. 21:9
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
158 Psa. 118:26b To come while Temple standing Mt. 21:12-15
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
159 Psa. 132:11 The Seed of David (the fruit of His Body) Luke 1:32; Acts 2:30
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
160 Psa. 129:3 He was scourged Mt. 27:26
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
161 Psa. 138:1-6 The supremacy of David’s Seed amazes kings Mt. 2:2-6
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
162 Psa. 147:3-6 The earthly ministry of Christ described Luke 4:18
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
163 Prov. 1:23 He will send the Spirit of God John 16:7
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
164 Prov. 8:23 Foreordained from everlasting Rev. 13:8; 1 Peter 1:19-20
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
165 Song. 5:16 The altogether lovely One John 1:17
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
166 Isa. 2:3 He shall teach all nations John 4:25
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
167 Isa. 2:4 He shall judge among the nations John 5:22
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
168 Isa. 6:1 When Isaiah saw His glory John 12:40-41
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
169 Isa. 6:8 The One Sent by God John 12:38-45
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
170 Isa. 6:9-10 Parables fall on deaf ears Mt. 13:13-15
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
171 Isa. 6:9-12 Blinded to Christ and deaf to His words Acts 28:23-29
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
172 Isa. 7:14 To be born of a virgin Luke 1:35
Response:
See my “Virgin Birth” post.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
173 Isa. 7:14 To be Emmanuel-God with us Matthew 1:18-23; 1 Tim. 3:16
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
174 Isa. 8:8 Called Emmanuel Mt. 28:20
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
175 Isa. 8:14 A stone of stumbling, a Rock of offense 1 Peter 2:8
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
176 Isa. 9:1-2 His ministry to begin in Galilee Mt. 4:12-17
Response:
The text is not prophesying the origin of the messiah’s “ministry” but rather the regions which were conquered by Assyria and are to be restored to Israel under the rule of the messianic figure. To quote the notes from the NET translation:

These three geographical designations may refer to provinces established by the Assyrians in 734-733 b.c. The “way of the sea” is the province of Dor, along the Mediterranean coast, the “region beyond the Jordan” is the province of Gilead in Transjordan, and “Galilee of the nations” (a title that alludes to how the territory had been overrun by foreigners) is the province of Megiddo located west of the Sea of Galilee.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
177 Isa. 9:6 A child born-Humanity Luke 1:31
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
178 Isa. 9:6 A Son given-Deity Luke 1:32; John 1:14; 1 Tim. 3:16
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
179 Isa. 9:6 Declared to be the Son of God with power Romans 1:3-4
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
180 Isa. 9:6 The Wonderful One, Peleh Luke 4:22
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
181 Isa. 9:6 The Counsellor, Yaatz Mt. 13:54
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
182 Isa. 9:6 The Mighty God, El Gibor 1 Cor. 1:24; Titus 2:13
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
183 Isa. 9:6 The Everlasting Father, Avi Adth John 8:58; 10:30
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
184 Isa. 9:6 The Prince of Peace, Sar Shalom John 16:33
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
185 Isa. 9:7 To establish an everlasting kingdom Luke 1:32-33
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
186 Isa. 9:7 His Character-Just John 5:30
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
187 Isa. 9:7 No end to his Government, Throne, and Peace Luke 1:32-33
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
188 Isa. 11:1 Called a Nazarene-the Branch, Netzer Mt. 2:23
Response:
This is simply identifying the messianic figure as a descendent of David.

Regarding the claim of fulfillment in Matthew, see my “Nazarene” post.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
189 Isa. 11:1 A rod out of Jesse-Son of Jesse Luke 3:23; 3:32
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190 Isa. 11:2 Anointed One by the Spirit Matthew 3:16-17; Acts 10:38
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191 Isa. 11:2 His Character-Wisdom, Knowledge, et al Col. 2:3
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
192 Isa. 11:3 He would know their thoughts Luke 6:8; John 2:25
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
193 Isa. 11:4 Judge in righteousness Acts 17:31
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
194 Isa. 11:4 Judges with the sword of His mouth Rev. 2:16; 19:11; 19:15
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
195 Isa. 11:5 Character: Righteous & Faithful Rev. 19:11
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
196 Isa. 11:10 The Gentiles seek Him John 12:18-21
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
197 Isa. 12:2 Called Jesus-Yeshua Mt. 1:21
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
198 Isa. 22:22 The One given all authority to govern Rev. 3:7
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
199 Isa. 25:8 The Resurrection predicted 1 Cor. 15:54
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
200 Isa. 26:19 His power of Resurrection predicted Mt. 27:50-54
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
201 Isa. 28:16 The Messiah is the precious corner stone Acts 4:11-12
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
202 Isa. 28:16 The Sure Foundation 1 Corinthians 3:11; Mt. 16:18
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
203 Isa. 29:13 He indicated hypocritical obedience to His Word Mt. 15:7-9
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
204 Isa. 29:14 The wise are confounded by the Word 1 Cor. 1:18-31
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
205 Isa. 32:2 A Refuge-A man shall be a hiding place Mt. 23:37
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
206 Isa. 35:4 He will come and save you Mt. 1:21
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
207 Isa. 35:5-6 To have a ministry of miracles Mt. 11:2-6
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
208 Isa. 40:3-4 Preceded by forerunner John 1:23
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
209 Isa. 40:9 “Behold your God.” John 1:36; 19:14
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
210 Isa. 40:10 He will come to reward Rev. 22:12
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
211 Isa. 40:11 A shepherd-compassionate life-giver John 10:10-18
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
212 Isa. 42:1-4 The Servant-as a faithful, patient redeemer Mt. 12:18-21
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
213 Isa. 42:2 Meek and lowly Mt. 11:28-30
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
214 Isa. 42:3 He brings hope for the hopeless Mt. 12:14-21; John 4:1-54
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
215 Isa. 42:4 The nations shall wait on His teachings John 12:20-26
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
216 Isa. 42:6 The Light (salvation) of the Gentiles Luke 2:32
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
217 Isa. 42:1-6 His is a worldwide compassion Mt. 28:19-20
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
218 Isa. 42:7 Blind eyes opened. John 9:25-38
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
219 Isa. 43:11 He is the only Saviour. Acts 4:12
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
220 Isa. 44:3 He will send the Spirit of God John 16:7; 16:13
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
221 Isa. 45:21-25 He is Lord and Saviour Philippians 3:20; Titus 2:13
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
222 Isa. 45:23 He will be the Judge John 5:22; Romans 14:11
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
223 Isa. 46:9-10 Declares things not yet done John 13:19
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
224 Isa. 48:12 The First and the Last John 1:30; Revelation 1:8; 1:17
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
225 Isa. 48:16-17 He came as a Teacher John 3:2
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
226 Isa. 49:1 Called from the womb-His humanity Mt. 1:18
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227 Isa. 49:5 A Servant from the womb. Luke 1:31; Philippians 2:7
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
228 Isa. 49:6 He will restore Israel Acts 3:19-21; 15:16-17
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
229 Isa. 49:6 He is Salvation for Israel Luke 2:29-32
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230 Isa. 49:6 He is the Light of the Gentiles John 8:12; Acts 13:47
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
231 Isa. 49:6 He is Salvation unto the ends of the earth Acts 15:7-18
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
232 Isa. 49:7 He is despised of the Nation John 1:11; 8:48-49; 19:14-15
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
233 Isa. 50:3 Heaven is clothed in black at His humiliation Luke 23:44-45
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
234 Isa. 50:4 He is a learned counselor for the weary Matthew 7:29; 11:28-29
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
235 Isa. 50:5 The Servant bound willingly to obedience Mt. 26:39
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
236 Isa. 50:6a “I gave my back to the smiters.” Mt. 27:26
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
237 Isa. 50:6b He was smitten on the cheeks Mt. 26:67
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
238 Isa. 50:6c He was spat upon Mt. 27:30
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
239 Isa. 52:7 Published good tidings upon mountains Matthew 5:12; 15:29; 28:16
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
240 Isa. 52:13 The Servant exalted Acts 1:8-11; Eph. 1:19-22; Phil. 2:5-9
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
241 Isa. 52:14 The Servant shockingly abused Luke 18:31-34; Mt. 26:67-68
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
242 Isa. 52:15 Nations startled by message of the Servant Luke 18:31-34; Mt. 26:67-68
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
243 Isa. 52:15 His blood shed sprinkles nations Hebrews 9:13-14; Rev. 1:5
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
244 Isa. 53:1 His people would not believe Him John 12:37-38
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
245 Isa. 53:2 Appearance of an ordinary man Phil. 2:6-8
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
246 Isa. 53:3a Despised Luke 4:28-29
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
247 Isa. 53:3b Rejected Mt. 27:21-23
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
248 Isa. 53:3c Great sorrow and grief Matthew 26:37-38; Luke 19:41; Heb. 4:15
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
249 Isa. 53:3d Men hide from being associated with Him Mark 14:50-52
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
250 Isa. 53:4a He would have a healing ministry Mt. 8:16-17
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
251 Isa. 53:4b Thought to be cursed by God Matthew 26:66; 27:41-43
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
252 Isa. 53:5a Bears penalty for mankind’s iniquities 2 Cor. 5:21; Heb. 2:9
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
253 Isa. 53:5b His sacrifice provides peace between man and God Col. 1:20
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
254 Isa. 53:5c His sacrifice would heal man of sin 1 Peter 2:24
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
255 Isa. 53:6a He would be the sin-bearer for all mankind 1 John 4:10
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
256 Isa. 53:6b God’s will that He bear sin for all mankind Gal. 1:4
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
257 Isa. 53:7a Oppressed and afflicted Mt. 27:27-31
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
258 Isa. 53:7b Silent before his accusers Mt. 27:12-14
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
259 Isa. 53:7c Sacrificial lamb John 1:29; 1 Peter 1:18-19
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
260 Isa. 53:8a Confined and persecuted Matthew 26:47-75; 27:1-31
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
261 Isa. 53:8b He would be judged John 18:13-22
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
262 Isa. 53:8c Killed Mt. 27:35
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263 Isa. 53:8d Dies for the sins of the world 1 John 2:2
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
264 Isa. 53:9a Buried in a rich man’s grave Mt. 27:57
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
265 Isa. 53:9b Innocent and had done no violence Luke 23:41; John 18:38
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
266 Isa. 53:9c No deceit in his mouth 1 Peter 2:22
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
267 Isa. 53:10a God’s will that He die for mankind John 18:11
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
268 Isa. 53:10b An offering for sin Matthew 20:28; Galatians 3:13
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
269 Isa. 53:10c Resurrected and live forever Romans 6:9
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
270 Isa. 53:10d He would prosper John 17:1-5
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
271 Isa. 53:11a God fully satisfied with His suffering John 12:27
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272 Isa. 53:11b God’s servant would justify man Romans 5:8-9; 5:18-19
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
273 Isa. 53:11c The sin-bearer for all mankind Heb. 9:28
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
274 Isa. 53:12a Exalted by God because of his sacrifice Mt. 28:18
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
275 Isa. 53:12b He would give up his life to save mankind Luke 23:46
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
276 Isa. 53:12c Numbered with the transgressors Mark 15:27-28; Luke 22:37
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
277 Isa. 53:12d Sin-bearer for all mankind 1 Peter 2:24
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
278 Isa. 53:12e Intercede to God in behalf of mankind Luke 23:34; Rom. 8:34
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
279 Isa. 55:3 Resurrected by God Acts 13:34
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
280 Isa. 55:4a A witness John 18:37
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
281 Isa. 55:4b He is a leader and commander Heb. 2:10
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
282 Isa. 55:5 God would glorify Him Acts 3:13
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
283 Isa. 59:16a Intercessor between man and God Mt. 10:32
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
284 Isa. 59:16b He would come to provide salvation John 6:40
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
285 Isa. 59:20 He would come to Zion as their Redeemer Luke 2:38
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
286 Isa. 60:1-3 He would shew light to the Gentiles Acts 26:23
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
287 Isa. 61:1a The Spirit of God upon him Mt. 3:16-17
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
288 Isa. 61:1b The Messiah would preach the good news Luke 4:16-21
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
289 Isa. 61:1c Provide freedom from the bondage of sin John 8:31-36
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
290 Isa. 61:1-2a Proclaim a period of grace Gal. 4:4-5
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
291 Jer. 11:21 Conspiracy to kill Jesus John 7:1; Matthew 21:38
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
292 Jer. 23:5-6 Descendant of David Luke 3:23-31
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
293 Jer. 23:5-6 The Messiah would be both God and Man John 13:13; 1 Tim 3:16
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
294 Jer. 31:22 Born of a virgin Mt. 1:18-20
Response:
Can anybody explain how is this possibly a prophecy of a virgin birth?
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
295 Jer. 31:31 The Messiah would be the new covenant Mt. 26:28
Response:
Matthew 26:28 isn’t the best choice here since the word “new” is a variant that isn’t present in the best and earliest manuscripts. Regardless, the “new covenant” concept is certainly part of early Christendom and is better captured in Hebrews 10, which quotes Jeremiah 31:33-34. But there’s still a problem – as noted in #34, the author of Hebrews is working hard to sell the “once for all” feature of Jesus’ sacrifice to Jews who were raised on the annual rituals prescribed by the Torah. He appeals to the new covenant described by Jeremiah as evidence that God would eventually do away with the need for continual sacrifices. The problem is that in Jeremiah 33:18 we see that the promised restoration of Jerusalem under the Davidic king still includes Levitical sacrifices.

I’ve seen some apologists will try to weasel out of the implications of Jeremiah 33:18 by suggesting that perhaps the sacrifices will be re-instituted as a symbolic reminder in the New Jerusalem after Jesus’ second coming. Of course, there is zero reason to think that Jeremiah 33 is speaking of a different time than Jeremiah 31 and a multitude of reasons to think that they’re both referencing a singular restoration. The only reason to accept this apologetic is to avoid the inconsistencies that were introduced when the early Christians adopted the new covenant as their own.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
296 Jer. 33:14-15 Descendant of David Luke 3:23-31
Response:
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297 Eze. 34:23-24 Descendant of David Mt. 1:1
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
298 Eze. 37:24-25 Descendant of David Luke 1:31-33
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
299 Dan. 2:44-45 The Stone that shall break the kingdoms Mt. 21:44
Response:
We’re told in the very next verse in Matthew 21:45 that the ones crushed are the Jewish religious leaders, not the nations. There are also no literary or contextual constructs which support a connection to the stone in Daniel.

Also see my post on “Daniel’s prophecies of kingdoms”.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
300 Dan. 7:13-14a He would ascend into heaven Acts 1:9-11
Response:
It is very likely that Daniel 7 was a major influence on the labels (Son of Man) and eschatology associated with Jesus but was probably only a minor influence on the story of the ascension, which was informed primarily by the cosmology of the time (see also #4). The allusion to a second coming on the clouds in Acts 1:11, however, is clearly derived from Daniel.

Also see my post on “Daniel’s prophecies of kingdoms”.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
301 Dan. 7:13-14b Highly exalted Eph. 1:20-22
Response:
The text in Daniel is certainly describing the high exaltation of the messianic figure, but the claim of fulfillment is an inscrutable theological assertion. As previously noted, we can apply the flow of information we understand for every other context to see that the eschatology associated with Jesus, partially informed by Daniel, influenced the exaltation assigned to Jesus.

Also see my post on “Daniel’s prophecies of kingdoms”.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
302 Dan. 7:13-14c His dominion would be everlasting Luke 1:31-33
Response:
In addition to the fact that we can’t claim fulfillment for something that hasn’t happened yet, the response above (#301) can be used by swapping “eternal kingdom” for “high exaltation”.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
303 Dan. 9:24a To make an end to sins Gal. 1:3-5
Response:
The passages in Daniel and Galations are suggesting that the eschatological age (a presumably still future time) will be free of sin. We can’t claim prophecy fulfillment for something that hasn’t happened yet.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
304 Dan. 9:24a To make reconciliation for iniquity Romans 5:10; 2 Cor. 5:18-21
Response:
The messianic link here would be more interesting if it weren’t for the fact that this is another inscrutable theological assertion. Though the Daniel passage doesn’t attribute the atonement to the messiah, the text is a unique contributor to the eschatological landscape in that it appears to support a one-time atonement event, as is found in Christian interpretation of Jesus’ death.

Also see my post “Did Jesus fulfill Daniel’s 70 weeks”.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
305 Dan. 9:24b He would be holy Luke 1:35
Response:
The verse in Daniel doesn’t attribute holiness to a messianic figure. Even if it did, this is another inscrutable theological assertion.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
306 Dan. 9:25 His announcement John 12:12-13
Response:
This is primarily a question of timing. See my post “Did Jesus fulfill Daniel’s 70 weeks” for the detailed analysis.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
307 Dan. 9:26a Cut off Matthew 16:21; 21:38-39
Response:
The verse in Daniel infers a permanent cutting-off and there’s no hint that the same figure is featured in the eschatology of Daniel 7 or 10, which creates a discontinuity with the role of Jesus. See my post “Did Jesus fulfill Daniel’s 70 weeks” for additional details.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
308 Dan. 9:26b Die for the sins of the world Heb. 2:9
Response:
The verse in Daniel does not suggest that the cutting-off is “for the sins of the world”. This relies on a very peculiar KJV translation of “‘ayin” as “but not for himself”, which could then be interpreted as predicting a death for the sake of others, but this translation and interpretation is specious.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
309 Dan. 9:26c Killed before the destruction of the temple Mt. 27:50-51
Response:
This is primarily a question of timing. See my post “Did Jesus fulfill Daniel’s 70 weeks” for the detailed analysis.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
310 Dan. 10:5-6 Messiah in a glorified state Rev. 1:13-16
Response:
Sorry, you don’t get to claim prophecy fulfillment by reference to new prophecies in Revelation.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
311 Hos. 11:1 He would be called out of Egypt Mt. 2:15
Response:
See my “Out of Egypt” post.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
312 Hos. 13:14 He would defeat death 1 Cor. 15:55-57
Response:
The original passage in Hosea is not messianic and is in fact prophesying judgement on Samaria (Ephraim).

In Corinthians, this is another example of Paul’s creative misappropriation of OT texts. To quote again the notes from the NET translation on Hosea 13:14

There are three interpretive options to v. 14: (1) In spite of Israel’s sins, the Lord will redeem them from the threat of death and destruction (e.g., 11:8). However, against this view, the last line of 13:14 probably means that the Lord will not show compassion to Israel. (2) The Lord announces the triumphant victory over death through resurrection (cf. KJV, ASV, NIV). However, although Paul uses the wording of Hosea 13:14 as an illustration of victory over death, the context of Hosea’s message is the imminent judgment in 723-722 b.c. (3) The first two lines of 13:14 are rhetorical questions without explicit interrogative markers, implying negative answers: “I will not rescue them!” (cf. NAB, NASB, NCV, NRSV, TEV, CEV, NLT). The next two lines in 13:14 are words of encouragement to Death and Sheol to destroy Israel. The final line announces that the Lord will not show compassion on Israel; he will not spare her.

Interpretation #2 probably wouldn’t even be on anybody’s radar if Paul hadn’t done it first. Also, note that a few short verses later in Hosea we have the infamous threat that “…because she rebelled against her God. They will fall by the sword, their infants will be dashed to the ground – their pregnant women will be ripped open.” This disturbing image is hardly an appropriate context for declaring victory over death.

# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
313 Joel 2:32 Offer salvation to all mankind Romans 10:9-13
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
314 Jonah 1:17 Death and resurrection of Christ Matthew 12:40; 16:4
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
315 Mic. 5:2a Born in Bethlehem Mt. 2:1-6
Response:
See my “Bethlehem” post.
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
316 Mic. 5:2b Ruler in Israel Luke 1:33
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
317 Mic. 5:2c From everlasting John 8:58
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
318 Hag. 2:6-9 He would visit the second Temple Luke 2:27-32
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
319 Hag. 2:23 Descendant of Zerubbabel Luke 2:27-32
Response:
# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
320 Zech. 3:8 God’s servant John 17:4
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
321 Zech. 6:12-13 Priest and King Heb. 8:1
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
322 Zech. 9:9a Greeted with rejoicing in Jerusalem Mt. 21:8-10
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
323 Zech. 9:9b Beheld as King John 12:12-13
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
324 Zech. 9:9c The Messiah would be just John 5:30
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
325 Zech. 9:9d The Messiah would bring salvation Luke 19:10
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
326 Zech. 9:9e The Messiah would be humble Mt. 11:29
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
327 Zech. 9:9f Presented to Jerusalem riding on a donkey Mt. 21:6-9
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
328 Zech. 10:4 The cornerstone Eph. 2:20
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
329 Zech. 11:4-6a At His coming, Israel to have unfit leaders Mt. 23:1-4
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
330 Zech. 11:4-6b Rejection causes God to remove His protection Luke 19:41-44
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
331 Zech. 11:4-6c Rejected in favor of another king John 19:13-15
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
332 Zech. 11:7 Ministry to “poor,” the believing remnant Mt. 9:35-36
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
333 Zech. 11:8a Unbelief forces Messiah to reject them Mt. 23:33
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
334 Zech. 11:8b Despised Mt. 27:20
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
335 Zech. 11:9 Stops ministering to those who rejected Him Mt. 13:10-11
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
336 Zech. 11:10-11a Rejection causes God to remove protection Luke 19:41-44
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
337 Zech. 11:10-11b The Messiah would be God John 14:7
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
338 Zech. 11:12-13a Betrayed for thirty pieces of silver Mt. 26:14-15
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
339 Zech. 11:12-13b Rejected Mt. 26:14-15
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
340 Zech. 11:12-13c Thirty pieces of silver cast in the house of the Lord Mt. 27:3-5
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
341 Zech. 11:12-13d The Messiah would be God John 12:45
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
342 Zech. 12:10a The Messiah’s body would be pierced John 19:34-37
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
343 Zech. 12:10b The Messiah would be both God and man John 10:30
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
344 Zech. 12:10c The Messiah would be rejected John 1:11
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
345 Zech. 13:7a God’s will He die for mankind John 18:11
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
346 Zech. 13:7b A violent death Mark 14:27
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
347 Zech. 13:7c Both God and man John 14:9
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
348 Zech. 13:7d Israel scattered as a result of rejecting Him Mt. 26:31-56
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
349 Zech. 14:4 He would return to the Mt. of Olives Acts 1:11-12
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
350 Mal. 3:1a Messenger to prepare the way for Messiah Mark 1:1-8
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
351 Mal. 3:1b Sudden appearance at the temple Mark 11:15-16
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
352 Mal. 3:1c Messenger of the new covenant Luke 4:43
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
353 Mal. 3:6 The God who changes not Heb. 13:8
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
354 Mal. 4:5 Forerunner in spirit of Elijah Mt. 3:1-3; 11:10-14; 17:11-13
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# OT Verse Prophecy Verses Where Fulfilled
355 Mal. 4:6 Forerunner would turn many to righteousness Luke 1:16-17
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